One in 10 pre-schoolers may be suffering mental illness

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Artykuł pochodzi z pisma "Guardian"


One in 10 preschool children, aged as young as two to five, could be suffering from anxiety, depression or other mental illnesses, child psychiatrists say.
The theory that mental health problems are rooted in the turbulence of adolescence is misplaced, say experts. Research by a leading British psychiatrist based in the US has found that children aged between two and five have the same rate of mental health disorders as teenagers, and not much less than adults.
Adrian Angold, associate professor of psychiatry at the Duke University Medical Centre in North Carolina, said yesterday that he was "genuinely surprised" that the study had shown the same 10% rate as in older children and added that it was "scary". "They are really sick. The vast majority are not identified and are not receiving services," he said.
Once it was assumed that mental illness was a problem of adulthood, then that it was triggered by growing up. Now, says Professor Angold, experts are wondering whether there is any way to assess the psychological health of babies. Prof Angold, in London to present his findings to a conference on children's mental health held by the Institute of Psychiatry, said his team had found a variety of problems in the 307 children they studied.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was identified in 3.3% of the children. In the US, some schools insist that parents take such children to the doctor to be given Ritalin, an amphetamine-based drug with a calming effect.
• Depression was identified in 2% of the children. "They will be sad and irritable. When they play, they have negative play themes. They are likely to have disturbed sleep and reduced appetite. They say things are their fault and that they don't do anything right," said Prof Angold.
Disruptive disorders accounted for 8.4%. "These included two disorders - oppositional defiant disorder, where children won't follow instructions or obey rules and are highly irritable ... Then there is conduct disorder, where they fight and lie," he said.
• Anxiety disorders were the largest single category, identified in 9.5% of children. They take several forms - some have difficulty being separated from their parents. Another form is social anxiety. A small group have particular fears, and some generalised anxiety.
• Where a child has one or more of these and it has a serious impact on aspects of their lives, they are said to have serious emotional disorders. This was the biggest group - as many as 11.3% of the children.
About 13% of adults in the west suffer from persistent and multiple mental disorders. The older people become, the harder it is to help them. "It does suggest we should be paying more attention to this very early on," said Prof Angold.
Vocabulary

anxiety- niepokój, lęk
associate professor- profesor nadzwyczajny
assume- zakładać, przyjmować, uznawać
attention- uwaga
conduct- zachowanie się
defiant- nieposłuszny, buntowniczy, oporny
deficit- niedobór, deficyt
disorder- zaburzenie
disruptive- zakłócający; destrukcyjny
disturbed- zakłócony
genuinely- autentycznie
hyperactivity - nadaktywność, nadczynność, nadmierna ruchliwość
insist- nalegać
irritable- drażliwy, nerwowy
mental health- zdrowie psychiczne
mental illness - choroba psychiczna
misplaced- niewłaściwie ulokowany
multiple- wieloraki, złożony
persistent- uporczywy, trwały
rooted in- zakorzeniony w, wynikający z, związany z
trigger- wywoływać, powodować
turbulence- burzliwość, turbulencja
vast majority- ogromna większość



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